Whitehorse Air Operating Procedures
Our success lies in having clear and reasonable procedures. The following safety rules have been developed to ensure flight safety. They are to be strictly adhered to. If you have any questions, please ask Whitehorse Air Services.
1. WEATHER MINIMA:
Whitehorse Air Services has set weather minima for all flight operations. We have the final say as to whether a flight may proceed due to weather. Before flight, you are expected to obtain a weather briefing from Flight Services, either by calling (867) 667-8427, or by visiting in person on the main floor of the control tower. Weather information may also be obtained from the Nav Canada website at www.flightplanning.navcanada.ca, although we encourage you to use the Flight Service Station specialists for their expertise and local knowledge (this is a 24 hr. service).
Whitehorse Air Services weather minimums for flight training are as follows:
DAY VFR FLIGHTS
• In the Control Zone - Not less than a ceiling of 1500’ AGL and visibility 3 miles.
• Out of the Control Zone (prescribed practice areas: see below) - Not less than a ceiling of 2000’ AGL and visibility 10 miles.
• Solo cross-country - Not less than a ceiling of 3000’ AGL and visibility 10 miles. The flight planned stops will be forecast to have VFR weather for not less than 2 hours before and after proposed arrival time.
• All solo flights will be at the discretion of the Chief Flight Instructor.
All dual flights will be at the discretion of your flight instructor; but in no case visibility less than 3 miles, ceiling 500’ AGL.
NIGHT VFR FLIGHTS
• Dual or Solo circuits: visibility 10 miles, ceiling 2000' AGL. (Reported)
• Dual cross-country: visibility 20 miles, ceiling 5000' AGL. (Reported and forecast)
• Solo cross-country: visibility 20 miles, ceiling 5000' AGL. (Reported and forecast)
2. TEMPERATURES – DUAL OR SOLO FLIGHT
• Below - 25° Celsius, all operations suspended. *
• Between -15° C and -25° C cross-country flights, circuits or flights not requiring power-off training are permitted. All approaches to landing will be conducted with not less than 1500 rpm. Carburetor heat must be applied when below 2000 RPM. Power must be increased to 2000 RPM for 5 seconds once per minute when operating below 2000 RPM.
• Warmer than -15° C, all flight training permitted. Carburetor heat must be applied when below 2000 RPM. Power must be increased to 2000 RPM for 5 seconds once per minute when operating below 2000 RPM.
*Note: If FDs indicate warmer temperatures aloft, flights may be permitted in some cases. This will be discussed with your flight instructor.
3. WIND – DUAL OR SOLO FLIGHT
All solo flights will be cancelled when the reported actual crosswind exceeds the maximum crosswind component as specified in the applicable Pilot Operating Handbook. Acceptable wind limits are at the discretion of your flight instructor.
4. FUEL - SOLO AND DUAL
No departure is permitted for flights in the training area with less than 18 gallons of fuel (flights of 1.5 hrs. or less). For all flights, you MUST depart with enough fuel to reach destination plus 1 hour reserve at normal cruising speed. Fuel tanks must be filled prior to solo cross country flight.
THE PILOT IN COMMAND IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ENSURING THAT THERE IS ADEQUATE FUEL FOR THE PROPOSED TRIP.
5. PRACTICE AREAS
The authorized training areas are as follows:
WEST PRACTICE AREA The WPA extends 5nm north and 15nm west from Cousins Airstrip, excluding the 5nm radius of the Cousins ATF zone; training is capped at 8000' ASL. As this is a major VFR route to Whitehorse, be alert for traffic transiting the area. Advise Whitehorse FSS on 126.7 when using this area.
EAST PRACTICE AREA The EPA is approximately 20nm southeast of Whitehorse Airport and is bounded by the ridges to the northeast of Marsh Lake beside the highway, and the 5000' ridge to the southwest on the other side of the lake. Training is capped at 8000' ASL. As this is a major VFR route to Whitehorse, be alert for traffic transiting the area. Advise Whitehorse FSS on 126.7 when using this area.
COWLEY LAKE Training is permitted 6000' and below in the Carcross Valley to the south of Cowley Lake and west into the Annie Lake valley. Be alert for IFR traffic inbound from the Robinson beacon (at the Annie Lake Road turnoff) to Whitehorse. Advise Whitehorse FSS on 126.7 when using this area.
LABERGE Training is permitted north of the control zone to the south end of Lake Laberge. The west boundary is the Klondike Highway, and the east boundary is the "north ridge". Be alert for IFR traffic inbound from the Laberge beacon (at Shallow Bay) to Whitehorse. Flights in this area will remain on Tower frequency 118.3.
All solo flights outside of the circuit are to remain in designated training areas unless authorized by your flight instructor.
6. AIRCRAFT DEFECT REPORTING PROCEDURES
If you notice any defect or irregular item during your preflight check, inform your instructor or Whitehorse Air Maintenance before proceeding. You may write the defect into the Journey Log in the 'remarks' column if appropriate; check with Whitehorse Air Maintenance or your instructor. All snags must be rectified or deferred before flight.
7. SECURING THE AIRCRAFT
Unless someone is waiting for the aircraft, please secure it as follows:
• SUMMER - After parking the aircraft, set the park brake, install the control lock and tie the aircraft down.
• WINTER – Install the control lock, set the park brake and tie the aircraft down. Put on the cowl and prop covers and plug in all heaters. After the last flight of the day, put on all wing and tail covers.
8. FORCED LANDING
Whitehorse Air Services is dedicated to providing safe and mechanically sound aircraft. In the event of a forced landing, you must follow these procedures:
Turn the ELT on before touchdown, using the panic switch on the instrument panel.
Evacuate the aircraft.
Ensure your own safety first. Look after your passenger’s needs. Use the survival gear and first aid kit as appropriate.
If safe to approach the aircraft, confirm the ELT is ON by manually switching toggle switch on the ELT to the ON position, and by listening to 121.5 on the aircraft radio if able.
If possible, and there is no fire risk in turning on the master switch (no spilled fuel), use the radio to contact FSS or another aircraft on 126.7 or 121.5.
If you are WITHIN VISUAL RANGE OF A TELEPHONE, you may proceed there to use the phone. Call the following numbers as appropriate:
If within the 911 area, call 911 for immediate emergency response.
Whitehorse Air Services 867-456-2828
Whitehorse Air Maintenance 867-668-7407
Chris McCulloch cell 867-335-1845
Flight Service 1-866-541-4107 or 867-667-8427
If you are NOT WITHIN VISUAL RANGE OF TELEPHONE FACILITIES, DO NOT leave the aircraft. Remain with the aircraft until help arrives. Remember, the aircraft is much more visible from the air than a person.
Remain calm and keep warm. Make yourself visible with signals - flares, mirrors, fire. Use your survival gear.
If you feel a takeoff may be possible, do not make this attempt until you have contacted Whitehorse Air Services.
9. UNSCHEDULED LANDING PROCEDURE
In any situation that requires you to make an unscheduled or off-airport landing, attempt to contact Whitehorse Air Services and FSS if you will be delayed beyond your ETA.
If there are no telephone facilities where you have landed, attempt to contact Flight Service if you have not already done so. If you cannot contact FSS using frequencies 126.7 or 121.5, try to contact an overflying aircraft. They will then relay to FSS for you.
If you are unable to relay a message via radio and you are unable to take off, ACTIVATE YOUR ELT one hour past your expected ETA. As we will be searching for you anyway, this will greatly assist search and rescue. LEAVE THE ELT ON until a search and rescue team locates you and tells you to turn it off.
Once you have been located, use the VHF radio to establish contact with the rescue team on 126.7 or 121.5.
Please direct any questions regarding any of these procedures to a flight instructor.
10. OVERFLYING BODIES OF WATER:
From time to time, you will be flying over one of the thousands of lakes found in the Yukon. You must adhere to CAR 602.62, which states that an aircraft may not be operated over water beyond a point where the aircraft could glide to shore in the event of an engine failure.
11. SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
Proper clothing for a night in the bush must be carried in all cases. Survival equipment must be carried if your intended route will take you beyond the training areas described above. Whitehorse Air Services aircraft carry survival equipment as per CAR 602.61. It is strongly encouraged that all pilots make up their own survival kit and always take it on cross-country flights. Survival kits for flying in the north will be discussed during the SAR/ELT ground school.
For winter flying, all pilots and passengers must wear proper winter clothing such as jackets, gloves, hats and boots. If you are cold during your walk-around, then you are not dressed appropriately for your flight.
12. MOUNTAIN FLYING
All of our flights are in mountainous terrain. Be aware of and adhere to the following principles of mountain flying.
• NEVER fly into or climb into rising terrain.
• NEVER fly through saddles.
• ALWAYS leave a turn of 90 degrees or less towards lowering terrain.
• ALWAYS cross ridges at 500’ or more above the highest terrain.
• ALWAYS cross ridges at a 45 degree angle or less.
• AVOID approaching terrain from the leeward side. Strong downdrafts may be present.
• Be aware of density altitude effects on aircraft performance.
• Expect turbulence and wind shear.
• Secure your cargo and all loose items.
• Expect downdrafts that exceed the climb capability of the aircraft.
• Do not fly when wind aloft exceeds 30 knots.
All pilots are encouraged to take the formal "Mountain Flying Course" offered by Whitehorse Air Services. This is a comprehensive ground school of 3 hours, with 3-4 hours of air time, to develop flight and pilot decision making skills as apply to mountain flying.
13. NO SMOKING
No Smoking at any time in or within 100’ of any aircraft.
14. FLIGHT PLAN
A flight plan must be filed unless you will be operating in the circuit, at Cousins or in one of the prescribed training areas. In some cases, a company note will be acceptable.
Pre-flight your aircraft carefully. Sign yourself out before you fly. By signing the Flight Dispatch form, you indicate that you accept the aircraft as being safe in all respects for the intended flight. You are responsible for the final decision whether or not to accept the aircraft. If unsure, please ask. All solo training flights must be specifically authorized by your instructor.
16. PRE-FLIGHT CHECKS
Before take-off, make sure that a thorough walkaround and all checklist items are completed. Careless pilots are not only a danger to themselves and their passengers, but also to the occupants of other aircraft and people on the ground. Remember that any item omitted on a check can easily become the most important omission of your life. Do not take your responsibility lightly. For your own safety, as well as for that of others, ALWAYS thoroughly complete your checks.